Animal rights groups are also supporting these forms of testing, as it poses no risk to animals.
Phase 1 Trials
After the preclinical stage, the phase 1 trials will start. During the phase 1 trials, researchers would give an initial formulation of the vaccine to a small number of people. This helps give the researchers an idea of the possible effects of their vaccine, as well as how effective it would be when injected into people.
During this stage, researchers will also figure out the dosage required for the vaccine to be deemed effective.
Phase 2 Expanded Trials
Next up in the phases of vaccine development is the phase 2 expanded trials.
As the name suggests, this expands upon the trials that were done during the first phase of vaccine development.
Researchers will administer the vaccine to hundreds of people of various demographics. Usually, researchers give the vaccine to people of different age groups.
This gives the researchers a clear picture of how the vaccine can have a different effect from person to person. The reason for this is that the vaccine might behave differently when given to a child, an adult, or to the elderly.
This paints a clearer picture of how the vaccine would affect a person’s immune system, as well as how effective it would be against the illness.
In some situations, such as with COVID-19, the first and second phase are usually combined. This is a way to accelerate development for testing.
Phase 3 Efficacy Trials
Fourth in the phases of vaccine development are the phase 3 trials. During the phase 3 trials, researchers will administer the vaccine to an even larger amount of people, usually thousands of people.
Along with the vaccine, volunteers will also be given a placebo. The phase 3 efficacy trials help give researchers a better idea of how effective their vaccine would be.