Male and female smokers are both at risk of coronary heart disease. But women are 25% more likely to experience this. Researchers are still studying the links, but theorize that elevated levels of biochemicals such fasting insulin and glucose, free testosterone, and higher blood pressure and heart rate are contributing factors.
According to research, female smokers have higher rates of asthma regardless of weight, whereas this is observed in male smokers who are underweight or of normal weight.
Compared to non-smokers, women who smoke may experience incontinence, finding it difficult to control their urination and bowel movements. The incontinence symptoms of female smokers are also greater compared to their male peers.
Though has not been established whether smoking directly decreases bone density, it does raise risk factors that can affect bone health and increases the risk of osteoporosis.
Other factors that affect bone health are higher alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and early menopause of smokers. The WHO also noted that studies have discovered lower bone densities among postmenopausal women who smoke.
The Harvard Medical School, meanwhile, reported the earlier onset of menopause among female smokers.
Studies have also found that among female smokes the rate of bone loss is faster with higher fracture rates. This is caused by lower estrogen levels and chemicals found in tobacco and smoke, which prevent the proper absorption of needed nutrients by the bone.