Compared to non-smokers, women who smoke may experience incontinence, finding it difficult to control their urination and bowel movements. The incontinence symptoms of female smokers are also greater compared to their male peers.
Though has not been established whether smoking directly decreases bone density, it does raise risk factors that can affect bone health and increases the risk of osteoporosis.
Other factors that affect bone health are higher alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and early menopause of smokers. The WHO also noted that studies have discovered lower bone densities among postmenopausal women who smoke.
The Harvard Medical School, meanwhile, reported the earlier onset of menopause among female smokers.
Studies have also found that among female smokes the rate of bone loss is faster with higher fracture rates. This is caused by lower estrogen levels and chemicals found in tobacco and smoke, which prevent the proper absorption of needed nutrients by the bone.
Risks of smoking for women’s reproductive health and Pregnancy
Female cigarette smokers or those who are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke face a host of reproductive health challenges. The WHO noted that women smokers are more at risk for primary and secondary infertility and delays in conception.
Those who become pregnant have a higher risk of pregnancy-related complications such as premature rupture of membranes, placenta previa (partial or total obstruction by the placenta of the cervical os), preterm delivery, miscarriage, and preeclampsia.
Female smokers also give birth to smaller and lighter infants, and experience higher rates of stillbirth, congenital malformation, and perinatal mortality.
Other health risks of smoking for women
The WHO added that smoking increases the risk of women developing non-life threatening conditions that may still impact their quality of life such as periodontal disease, gallbladder disease, peptic ulcer, some forms of cataract, and facial wrinkling.