A migraine is a neurological condition and a form of headache. It can cause moderate to severe pain like pulsing and throbbing. In 2018, researchers discovered that more than 15 percent of adults in the United States had suffered a migraine episode or an intense headache within the last three months. In this article, we discuss the common migraine symptoms and stages.
The migraine pain
Experts believe that migraine starts when nerve cells become overactive and transmit signals to the trigeminal nerve. This is the never that gives sensation to the head and face. This occurrence prompts the body to deliver chemicals such as calcitonin gene-related peptide. As a result, there is swelling in the blood vessels in the brain lining. Consequently, it causes inflammation and pain.
Migraines are different for everyone. Understanding the symptoms and stages of migraine can help people manage this headache. Recognizing and addressing a migraine first hand can be a way to prevent symptoms.
Common migraine symptoms in different stages
Migraines can happen in four timelines:
This is also called the premonitory phase or “pre-headache” where the migraine attack can start. A person with a migraine who experiences prodrome can suffer for several hours or, in some cases, several days. The early warning signs of prodrome may include:
- Fatigue and muscle stiffness
- Unusually energetic
- Food cravings
- Sleepiness, with a lot of yawning
- Increased need to urinate
- Difficulty speaking or reading
The aura stage can happen before or during migraines. In this stage, each symptom appears gradually then creates a build-up over several minutes. Symptoms can last up to one hour.
During an aura, a person may also experience sensations on the skin and language problems:
- Pins and needles sensations in an arm or leg and, less commonly, numbness (this can spread throughout the body)
- Having a hard time communicating with others
- Difficulty in expressing thoughts when writing and speaking
- Trouble understanding spoken or written words
- Trouble concentrating
A person may also experience changes in vision, such as:
- A flickering light with complicated shapes on the left or right side of a person’s vision
- A blind spot or temporary loss of sight that makes it hard to drive or focus on little objects
- Hallucinations or seeing some images from the past
Other symptoms of an aura stage may include hearing noises or music and uncontrollable jerking.
This is when the headache begins. Most of the time, a migraine starts as a minor ache before increasing into pounding pain. Physical activities can worsen the migraine, so it is best to rest when the throbbing occurs. The pain can be in the front of the head, from one side of the head to the other, or be present all throughout the head.
Most migraine headaches attack for about 4 hours, but severe cases can last for more than 3 days if not treated. How often a migraine occurs differ from person to another. It is common to get up to four headaches per month. Other may experience migraines every one to three days, while the lucky ones only get one or two headaches a year.
During this stage, one may experience most of these symptoms:
- Burning nausea
- Sensitivity to light, sound, and smell
- Nasal congestion
- A feeling of an icepick in the head
- A Drilling feeling
- Neck pain and stiffness
A person might feel washed out and drained after a migraine attack, though some cases involve people feeling exhilarated. It is important to know that an abrupt head movement may cause recurring pain during the postdrome stage. Other symptoms include:
- Inability to concentrate
- Depressed mood
- Euphoric mood
- Lack of comprehension
Getting through the headache does not guarantee that a person will not experience another migraine attack. Some people in the postdrome phase are still likely to encounter migraines if they encounter triggers like vivid lights and strong smells.
Unfortunately, there is still no cure for migraines, so the most we can do is to avoid the typical triggers of a migraine. Learning all stages and symptoms of a migraine can be helpful in determining which treatment option works best for you when a headache starts. If you regularly get migraine attacks, it is best to speak to your doctor or a medical specialist.
Learn more about the Brain And Nervous System here.
Hello Health Group does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.