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Conditions Affecting the Pelvis

Medically reviewed by Mary Rani Cadiz, MD · Obstetrics and Gynecology

Written by Lorraine Bunag, R.N. · Updated Jun 25, 2021

    Conditions Affecting the Pelvis

    The pelvis is a vital structure that houses many organs such as the bowel, bladder, and uterus. Should a woman experience problems related to her pelvis, these organs may also be affected. Learn more about the most common conditions affecting the pelvis here.

    What is the Pelvis?

    Before we discuss the conditions affecting the pelvis, we must first talk about the pelvis itself.

    The pelvis is a basin-shaped structure located below the abdomen and on top of the legs. When we talk about the pelvic area in relation to women’s health, generally speaking, we may pertain to the following structures contained within:

    • Ovaries, which produce the egg cells
    • The uterus or the womb (matris) and the organs near it, such as the bladder
    • Fallopian tubes, which carry the egg cells from the ovaries to the uterus
    • Cervix, which connects the uterus to the vagina
    • Vagina
    • Pelvic floor muscles

    The problems that occur in any of the organs mentioned above can be considered a pelvic-related issue. But what are the most common pelvic issues in women?

    The Most Common Conditions Affecting the Pelvis

    Some of the commonly reported pelvic-related health issues are the following:

    Retroverted Uterus

    Usually, the uterus or the womb is either tipped forward (anteverted) or upright.  But, for some women, the uterus is tipped backward (retroverted).

    An anteverted uterus doesn’t cause any problem unless it’s too tilted forward, in which case the woman might feel a slight pressure in front of her  lower abdomen. Similarly, a patient with a retroverted uterus generally wouldn’t have any symptom unless she has an associated condition like endometriosis or primary dysmenorrhea (severe menstrual cramps)

    Understanding Uterine Positions


    One of the common conditions affecting the pelvis is endometriosis.

    Endometriosis happens when the tissues similar to the lining of the uterus grow in places other than the womb, such as the ovaries and the fallopian tubes.

    Please note that it is a long-term condition that results in symptoms like pain during sex, pain while peeing, and difficulty getting pregnant.

    Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

    Heavy menstrual bleeding happens when a woman loses more than 80 ml of blood during her period. It is also defined as having a prolonged period that lasts for more than 7 days.

    This may happen due to any of the following conditions:

    • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
    • Uterine fibroids or myoma
    • Endometriosis
    • Uterine cancer
    • Endometrial polyp
    • Blood dyscrasia (blood-related problem)

    The treatment for heavy bleeding depends on its cause, but one of the options is dilatation and curettage (raspa) if there is general finding of thickened endometrial lining. In raspa, the doctor dilates the cervix and scrapes the lining of the womb with a spoon-shaped tool called a curette. The tissue sample will be then sent for biopsy to confirm if it is malignant or benign.

    Urinary Incontinence

    Another one of the most common conditions affecting the pelvis is urinary incontinence or loss of bladder control that results in involuntary urine leakage.

    Women who have stress urinary incontinence usually experience urine leaking when they cough, sneeze, or exercise. At times they also feel the overpowering urge to pee but cannot reach the comfort room in time. We call this urgency incontinence.

    Treatment options for urinary incontinence include bladder training, which aims to control the urge by delaying urination. The doctor may also order some medications that calm overactive bladder or medical procedures that improve urinary control, such as injecting botox or placing urethral sling. .


    Vaginismus happens when the vagina “tightens up” during penetrative sex. Reports say that it is a woman’s natural reaction to fear of vaginal penetration.

    Although women who experience vaginismus experience pain, distress, and anxiety due to their lack of control over their body, the condition is treatable and doesn’t necessarily affect the patient’s ability to feel aroused.

    The most common treatments for vaginismus is psychosexual therapy (talk therapy) and relaxation techniques like meditation and breathing exercises.

    Pelvic Organ Prolapse

     The pelvic floor is composed of muscles that function as a basin which supports various pelvic organs. As the woman ages, the pelvic floor muscle may weaken and cause one or more of the pelvic organs to prolapse or drop from their original position.

    Patients who suffer from pelvic organ prolapse often feel as if something will come out of their vagina (“may malalaglag”) because the bowel, bladder, or uterus bulges into the vagina. This feeling is often accompanied by changes in urination, usually reported as urinary frequency, feeling of incomplete bladder emptying, and straining to urinate.

    To treat pelvic organ prolapse, lifestyle changes are necessary. Try to lose weight and avoid heavy lifting. Additionally, talk to your doctor about pelvic floor exercise. For advanced prolapse, a surgical intervention may be necessary to correct the anatomic defect. 

    Urinary Tract Infections

    And finally, we cannot talk about pelvic-related health issues without mentioning urinary tract infections (UTIs)

    Women often experience UTI because they have a shorter urethra, the tube through which the urine leaves the body. A shorter urethra means the bacteria can easily travel to the bladder and cause bladder infection (cystitis).

    UTI treatment usually involves antibiotic therapy and hygiene practices that prevent bacteria from reaching the urinary tract.

    Key Takeaways

    Women who develop problems in their pelvis need to seek medical help to get proper treatment. In case you experience pelvic pain or symptoms that pertain to the above-mentioned conditions, consult your doctor right away.

    Learn more about Women’s Health here


    Hello Health Group does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

    Medically reviewed by

    Mary Rani Cadiz, MD

    Obstetrics and Gynecology

    Written by Lorraine Bunag, R.N. · Updated Jun 25, 2021

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