Are Freckles Symptoms of Diseases?
The natural environment and genetics are the root cause of most freckles. In a study of 523 middle-aged French women, two elements predicted the presence of freckles: frequent sunburns and a gene known as MC1R. This gene provides instructions for making melanin. This gene, however, doesn’t affect all individuals the same way.
There are two types of melanin: pheomelanin and eumelanin. People whose skin produces pheomelanin aren’t protected from UV radiation. They tend to have red or blonde hair, light skin, freckles, and skin that tans poorly.
On the other hand, people with more eumelanin tend to be protected from skin damage by UV and have brown or black hair, darker skin, and skin that tans easily.
A 1988 study revealed that sun sensitivity skin types I and II were significantly more common among people with light hair color, freckles, or both. The association of skin types I and II, red or blond hair, and freckles with decreased minimal erythema dose may reflect something in the skin. That’s genetically controlled predominance of pheomelanin (a photosensitizing molecule) in the skin of subjects with these phenotypes.