home

How could we improve it?

close
chevron
This article contains false or inaccurate information.
chevron

Please tell us what was incorrect.

wanring-icon
Please note that you do not need to fill this detail if it's inconvenient for you. Click Send My Opinion below to continue reading our site.
chevron
This article doesn't provide enough info.
chevron

Please tell us what was missing.

wanring-icon
Please note that you do not need to fill this detail if it's inconvenient for you. Click Send My Opinion below to continue reading our site.
chevron
Hmm... I have a question.
chevron

We’re unable to offer personal health advice, diagnosis, or treatment, but we welcome your feedback! Just type it in the box below.

wanring-icon
If you're facing a medical emergency, call your local emergency services immediately, or visit the nearest emergency room or urgent care center.

Or copy link

New

Eczema: Type of Dermatitis

Eczema: Type of Dermatitis

Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is characterized by patchy skin due to inflammation, and redness. This can be itchy and rough and can crack at the surface. In this article, we’ll look into the symptoms, causes, and eczema treatments as well as home remedies.

The Most Common Infectious Diseases Affecting the Skin

Symptoms of Eczema

Symptoms of this type of dermatitis vary not only where these rashes show up but also on the age of whoever has eczema. In this section, we’ll look into what eczema looks like for babies, children, and adults.

Babies

For babies up until two years of age, eczema is likely to show up on the scalp or cheeks. These rashes also have a tendency to bubble up and leak fluid. This itchiness can interfere with sleeping patterns and cause fussiness and rubbing. Make sure that this is avoided as this could lead to skin infections.

Children

For children, from two years old until right before puberty, these rashes are commonly found in the creases of the body. The creases of the elbows or knees or the upper thigh area right under the buttocks are highly susceptible to rubbing against each other. And so, they’re likely to become irritated. Areas like the neck, wrist, and ankle are also susceptible to eczema.

The appearance of the rashes could be bumpy and a shade lighter or darker than the skin tone. They could also thicken or develop into knots that constantly itch through a process called lichenification.

Adults

For adults, the rashes could cover much of the body. But similar to kids, they’re more commonly found in the creases of the body. They could also be prominent from the neck up like the neck, face, and the area around the eyes through dry and constantly itchy skin. Compared to children and babies, the rashes could be scalier and lead to even more skin infections due to exposure.

Causes

Common causes of eczema are:

  • Irritants
  • Allergens
  • Microbes
  • Food

Irritants

Irritants can be found as stripping ingredients in soaps or shampoo and other cleaning products like detergents and disinfectants.

There are also irritants present in food like juices from fruits, juices, meat, and vegetables.

Allergens

Allergens vary from person-to-person but common ones include dust mites, pets, pollen, mold, and dandruff. Common microbes like staphylococcus aureus, fungi, and viruses could cause itchiness and irritation, and eventually, eczema.

Certain food

Food like common intolerances such as dairy, eggs, nuts, seeds, soy, and wheat could also trigger eczema.

On top of these irritants, stress and hormones can exacerbate symptoms especially for pregnant people and at certain points of menstruation.

Eczema Treatment and Medications

Eczema is one of the dermatitis conditions that don’t really have a cure. Oftentimes, eczema resolves itself after some time. There are many treatment plans to curb the symptoms and get rid of the pesky splotches.

Occasionally, areas of skin affected by atopic eczema can become infected. Signs of an infection can include:

  • Worsening eczema
  • Fluid that oozes from the skin
  • Yellowish, whitish spots appearing on affected area or yellow crusting on the surface
  • Skin becoming sore and swollen
  • General feeling of discomfort; feeling hot and shivery

For eczema, the following may be prescribed as treatment and/or management:

  • Antibiotics since this type of dermatitis can refer to antifungals as well.
  • Antihistamines, which are anti-inflammatories for allergic triggers, help with the nighttime scratching due to drowsiness being a side effect and help with managing allergic triggers.
  • Moisturizers. Eczema’s dryness and itchiness are brought about by the dehydration of your skin. Moisturizers can help with repairing your skin barrier.
  • Corticosteroids, which are anti-inflammatory medication that comes in different forms, relieve the inflammation and the itchiness. Corticosteroids could be in topical cream or ointment form or could be taken orally or injected as systemic corticosteroids.
  • Phototherapy is a treatment option that is administered by experts since it involves targeted light exposure. The afflicted areas are exposed to ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB), or a combination of both to treat acute to moderate cases.

Since there isn’t something to cure the condition entirely, it’s important to take extra care of your skin even after the treatments have gotten rid of the symptoms.

What Triggers Eczema Flare-ups?

How to Avoid Triggers

Irritants

To prevent dermatitis flare-ups, you can try to reduce your exposure to common irritants, which are the following:

  • Chemicals
  • Soaps
  • Detergents
  • Perfumes
  • Smoke
  • Certain fabrics

To reduce eczema caused by the aforementioned, you may try to:

  • Use fragrance-free, gentle detergent and soaps
  • Wear breathable, cotton cloting
  • Wash clothes regularly, and wash newly bought pieces before wearing them
  • Keep your nails clean and tidy to prevent cuts and infection due to scratching
  • Wear sunscreen, preferably those that offer broad protection against UVA and UVB rays, with an SPF of 15 or higher
  • Wash off immediately after swimming in the pool or beach.

Inhaled Allergens

Allergens such as dust mites burrow in mattresses, pillows, and carpets, and other areas with high humidity. Change your bedsheets often and ensure to have these deep-cleaned regularly.

Certain food

Certain foods trigger eczema and to determine these, you can work with your allergist/ immunologist. Also, keep track of what you eat to more easily identify food triggers.

Stress

Stress, anger, and frustration can cause additional itching and kick-off an itch-scratch cycle that can further aggravate your condition.

Eczema Treatment: Home Care Tips

On top of the prescribed treatments, there are some home care tips to help care for eczema and your skin in general.

Warm baths and gentle cleansers

Try taking lukewarm baths with mild soap or gentle cleansers and air drying or patting the skin to dry instead of rubbing it that may cause irritation. Keep your fingernails short to avoid breaking your skin in case you do scratch.

Moisturize

Put lotion or moisturizer right after drying to help your skin retain moisture.

Avoiding rapid temperature or humidity changes also helps with maintaining moisture as well as avoiding situations or events that make you sweat. A way of doing this is making sure you have humidifiers for the dry weather.

Comfortable clothing

Wear softer fabrics like cotton and avoid tight clothing or clothing that could scratch your skin with its rough textures. Learning what your triggers are and making an active effort to avoid them is also crucial to treating eczema.

Key Takeaways

In general, taking care of your skin and making sure it’s properly moisturized is a way of taking care of your skin both preemptively and as one of the means for eczema treatment.

Learn more about Skin Health here.

Hello Health Group does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Sources

Eczema, https://nationaleczema.org/eczema/, Accessed Dec 20, 2020 

Atopic eczema, https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/atopic-eczema/, Accessed Dec 20, 2020 

Eczema, https://medlineplus.gov/eczema.html, Accessed Dec 20, 2020 

Eczema, https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/eczema, Accessed Dec 20, 2020 

Eczema: Atopic Dermatitis, https://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/library/allergy-library/eczema-atopic-dermatitis, Accessed Dec 20, 2020 

Picture of the author
Written by Tracey Romero on Dec 20, 2020
Medically reviewed by Dr. John Paul Abrina, M.D.
x