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Routine Immunization from Birth to Adulthood: All You Need to Know

Routine Immunization from Birth to Adulthood: All You Need to Know

Did you know that there are vaccines to prevent over 20 potentially fatal diseases? According to the World Health Organization (WHO), annual vaccination prevents 2-3 million deaths from different kinds of diseases. However, for vaccines to retain their effectiveness, children and even adults must receive the required doses. Hence, this article supplies you with the information you need to know about routine immunization.

Importance of Immunization

Immunization plays an important aspect in primary health care.

Despite this, a survey we conducted in observance of World Immunization week revealed that 84% of respondents that did not see the need for vaccines before COVID-19. And now, they are willing to know more and request for other adult vaccines recommended by their doctor.

It is a method of increasing a body’s natural immunity to a condition before one becomes ill. Moreover, it prevents the person from contracting the disease and spreading it to other people.

While you may already know this by heart because you follow through with routine immunization for your child, this also remains true especially now that you are an adult.

All adults need vaccinations to help avoid the contraction and transmission of diseases like pneumonia, influenza, and diphtheria, to name a few. Such diseases could lead to different consequences such as the following:

  • Poor health
  • Missed work
  • Medical bills
  • Inability to take care of family members

Aside from these, vaccines are also essential in controlling and preventing infectious disease outbreaks such as COVID-19. Furthermore, immunization shots are the foundation of global health security as it plays a critical role in the fight against antimicrobial resistance.

Types of Vaccines

Vaccines work in a variety of ways, but they all induce an immune response. The immune response is your body’s way of defending itself against substances that it perceives to be foreign or harmful.

Below are several types of vaccines, including:

  • Live-attenuated vaccines. This uses a weakened form of the germ to protect people against measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), rotavirus, smallpox, chickenpox, and yellow fever.
  • Inactivated vaccines. This type of vaccine makes use of a killed version of the germ. Inactivated vaccines bring protection against diseases like hepatitis A, influenza, polio, and rabies.
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines. As the name suggests, it makes use of the messenger RNA which is responsible for giving the cells the necessary instructions on how to make a protein for the germ. COVID-19 vaccines are one example of this form.
  • Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines. Such type uses only specific pieces of the germ (i.e., protein, sugar, or casing). It provides protection against diseases like whooping cough, shingles, hepatitis B, human papillomavirus (HPV), pneumococcal diseases, and meningococcal diseases.
  • Toxoid vaccines. The toxin that germs make is being used to bring aid and protection against diphtheria and tetanus.
  • Viral vector vaccines. These vaccines also include a distinct, harmless virus that aids in the transfer of genetic material into the cells of a person. These, in turn, help in preventing the risk of COVID-19.

Routine Immunization for Children

Children must receive all required doses on time from birth until they reach a year old. Moreover, they must also complete other additional doses during the Department of Health’s supplementary vaccination campaigns.

Children’s routine immunization must coverage must be at least 95%, as per UNICEF Philippines.

BCG vaccine for tuberculosis and Hepatitis B vaccine must be provided to a child at birth. Other vaccines on routine immunization are listed for your reference:

  • Pentavalent vaccine
    • When to administer: week 6, week 10, and week 14
    • Protection from: Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Influenza B, as well as hepatitis B
  • Oral Polio vaccine
    • When to administer: week 6, week 10, and week 14
    • Protection from: Poliovirus
  • Inactivated Polio vaccine
    • When to administer: week 14
    • Protection from: Poliovirus
  • PCV vaccine
    • When to administer: week 6, week 10, week 14
    • Protection from: Pneumonia and Meningitis
  • MMR vaccine
    • When to administer: 9 months and 1 year old
    • Protection from: Measles, Mumps, and Rubella

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Baby Vaccine Scheduler

Use the immunization schedule to learn what vaccinations your child needs and when

What is your baby’s gender?

Male

Female

Routine Immunization for Adults

Every year, every adult should get the seasonal flu (influenza) vaccine. The flu vaccine is particularly necessary for chronically ill people, pregnant women, and the elderly.

You should get the Tdap vaccine if you did not receive the Tdap vaccine as an adolescent. It will give you the protection you need against pertussis (whooping cough), accompanied by a Td (tetanus, diphtheria). A Tdap booster shot may also be given every 10 years under routine immunization.

Furthermore, women should receive the Tdap vaccine every time they become pregnant, preferably between the ages of 27 and 36 weeks.

Your MMR and Polio shots should also be reviewed and updated when deemed necessary before traveling to different countries.

The following immunizations may also be advised depending on age, health status, lifestyle, and occupational risk:

  • Meningococcal Meningitis
  • Pneumococcal Pneumonia
  • Varicella
  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
  • Herpes Zoster virus
  • Haemophilus influenza type B
  • Rotavirus

Key Takeaways

Routine immunizations play an essential role in maintaining and protecting children and adults from different kinds of diseases.

Vaccine efficacy can wear off over time. Hence, it is important that you keep your records updated for any vaccine shot that you may need.

Learn more about General Health Knowledge here.

Hello Health Group does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Sources

Philippines Recommended Vaccinations: Routine Immunizations, https://www.iamat.org/country/philippines/risk/routine-immunizations Accessed April 19, 2022

Routine immunization for children in the Philippines, https://www.unicef.org/philippines/stories/routine-immunization-children-philippines Accessed April 19, 2022

Vaccines, https://medlineplus.gov/vaccines.html Accessed April 19, 2022

Vaccines and Immunization, https://www.who.int/health-topics/vaccines-and-immunization#tab=tab_1 Accessed April 19, 2022

Vaccine Types, https://www.hhs.gov/immunization/basics/types/index.html Accessed April 19, 2022

What Vaccines Are Recommended for You, https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/adults/rec-vac/index.html#:~:text=All%20adults%20need%20immunizations%20to,able%20to%20care%20for%20family. Accessed April 19, 2022

 

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Written by Fiel Tugade Updated 7 days ago
Medically reviewed by Dexter Macalintal, MD