What Causes Glossitis?
Numerous causes may lead to glossitis, including the following:
Anemia. People with either iron deficiency or pernicious anemia are most likely to acquire glossitis. The lack of blood supply affects the muscles of the tongue, causing pain and swelling.
Vitamin B deficiencies. Glossitis is one of the symptoms of vitamin B deficiencies. According to research, 25% of patients with vitamin B deficiency experience changes and inflammation on the tongue’s surface.
Medications. Some medications can also cause glossitis, such as ACE inhibitors, albuterol, antimicrobial drugs, oral contraceptive pills, and lithium carbonate.
Poor hydration. Lack of water intake can also cause glossitis.
Irritants. The development of glossitis is commonly caused by irritants, such as allergies, habits, and even trauma. These include tongue-biting, alcohol intake, tobacco, dentures, braces, and allergies from food, oral hygiene products, and medications.
Autoimmune conditions. Infection due to bacteria, yeast, and viruses also triggers glossitis.
Prevention of Glossitis
There is no specific way to prevent the attack and development of glossitis because vitamin deficiencies are regularly found in different regions worldwide. However, research stated that the best way to resolve glossitis, one of the rare tongue conditions, is through removing the irritants that cause inflammation and swelling of the tongue.
How is Glossitis Diagnosed?
Patients with glossitis are evaluated through the following examinations:
- History. The evaluation of patients with glossitis includes asking about previous exposure to environmental factors like food intake that irritates the tongue, and habits, such as usage of alcohol, tobacco, and diet plans.
- Physical examination. It is the most essential part of evaluating patients with potential glossitis. The doctor will focus on the overall dental health of the patient: the appearance of the tongue surface, the teeth, and the floor of the entire mouth.
Medical history and physical examination are the most important in evaluating signs of glossitis. However, further studies may be required to determine and clarify the primary cause of the condition.