Unlike alkylating agents who damage the DNA, anti-metabolites trick the DNA instead. It finds parts that the DNA needs to metabolize and multiply and replaces them with itself to prevent further cell reproduction.
These can be taken through various means such as orally through a liquid, or tablet; or through an Intravenous drip. Usually taken in low doses to treat faster-spreading diseases.
It functions similarly to alkylating agents, wherein it damages the DNA of the cells it targets to prevent them from further reproducing.
Where it is different though is that these use a weakened form of streptomyces bacteria instead of chemicals and compounds. Although this is an antibiotic, it is not taken orally and is administered through an Intravenous drip.
As the name suggests, this inhibits the topoisomerase in the DNA. Toposiomerase regulates the coiling of DNA which can alter certain characteristics of the DNA such as cell reproduction.
However, because of its possibly adverse side-effects, the dosage of such medication is small. The side effects can cause someone to be more susceptible to other cancers. These are usually administered using an Intravenous drip.
Usually made of plants, this type of chemotherapy prevents cell division by targeting the microtubules of a cell. Microtubules are essentially the ‘skin’ of the cell. It is what gives them their shape and is also responsible for splitting the cell apart during cell division.
The problem with these types of chemotherapy drugs is that there are healthy cells that can actually proliferate faster than the usual cancerous tumors. Since this medicine simply stops the division of cells in general, it may negatively affect these healthy cells as well causing problems down the line like brain damage. Administered through an Intravenous drip.