Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that affects the uterus. Cancer cells form in the tissues of the endometrium (inner lining of the uterus).
The types of endometrial cancer include:
Like all cancers, endometrial cancer has different grades. These are divided into two types: lower-grade cancers (grade 1 and 2) and high-grade cancers (3).
In low-grade cancers, the tumor is still considered to be low risk, or it is unlikely to spread to other parts of the body. High-grade cancers are tumors with a tendency to grow and spread.
In this grade, 95% or more of the cancer tissues form glands that look similar to the glands found in a healthy endometrium.
Between 50% and 94% of cancer tissues form such glands.
Less than half of the cancer tissues form glands. This grade of cancer is more aggressive.
The most common symptoms include:
Health professionals do not know the main cause of endometrial cancer. However, among the risk factors are imbalances in the body’s levels of progesterone and estrogen.
Having more progesterone than estrogen increases the risk of this kind of cancer. Situations that result in an increase in estrogen but not progesterone include suffering polycystic ovary syndrome, taking estrogen hormones, and having ovarian tumors that secrete estrogen.
Other risk factors include the following:
Doctors may perform pelvic exams and imaging tests to determine if a patient has endometrial cancer.
Doctors also need to take a sample of endometrial tissue from the patient. This may be done by using a tube passed from the cervix and into the uterus, to collect some tissue samples from the endometrium. Another method is by dilating the cervix with a speculum and using a curette, or a spoon-shaped apparatus, to scrape out tissue samples.
These samples are studied under a microscope to determine if there are cancer cells.
The most common treatment for endometrial cancer is surgery. This may include a hysterectomy, or a surgery to remove the uterus.
Other treatments include:
Endometrial cancer should be treated immediately as it can cause death, especially due to the severity of a grade 3 cancer. Those most at risk include menopausal women, obese women, and those who have never been pregnant. Treatment for this condition includes surgery, as well as other forms of cancer management therapies.
Learn about Other Cancers here.
Hello Health Group does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.